What We Do

Livelihoods and Poverty Alleviation

WORK AREAS

Livelihoods and Poverty Alleviation

Cities have always been a centre of opportunity for people. Thereby, making migration synonymous to livelihooods and brisk development. This development however, is not always planned. It is a challenge for cities to evolve with the increased rate of migration and need of resources. To bridge this gap, we UMC integrates an urban poor focus across all of its research, programs and projects to improve outcomes and bring equality by supporting local governments to ensure equity in service delivery to urban poor settlements.
Present Engagements

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana

Convergence between Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission & Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) with a focus on sanitation-based livelihoods with the support of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

U-Learn an e-learning platform for training of DAY-NULM functionaries and beneficiaries

Technical Support to National Urban Livelihood Mission for Convergence with Swachh Bharat Mission

Client: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Location: India
Duration: October 2017-March 2020

The Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY – NULM) of the MoHUA aims to reduce poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor households. The Mission builds strong grassroots institutions for the poor, facilitates access to self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities, resulting in an appreciable improvement in their livelihoods on a sustainable basis.
There is a need for convergence between the SBM-U and DAY-NULM to improve the quality of life of marginalised groups. This requires improving the entire sanitation value chain which includes collection/emptying, transportation, processing/treatment, and reuse/disposal. There is also a need to create an institutional framework for jobs as well as to create a skills ecosystem for the sanitation and waste management sector.

One of the key objectives of the SBM-U is to eliminate manual scavenging. The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act 2013 also provides assistance and measures for rehabilitation of people engaged in the work. Progressive rehabilitation of those dependent on scavenging/ unsafe sanitation work has to be planned simultaneously, through skill development programmes; recognizing them, and offering safer employment avenues so that they get suitably rehabilitated.

This convergence guideline booklet suggests a framework and models to converge efforts under DAY-NULM and SBM-(U), through promoting livelihood options for women’s Self-Help Groups (SHGs), informal workers, and other marginalized communities. These livelihood opportunities exist along the sanitation and waste management value chains, such as collection and transportation of waste, processing and converting municipal solid waste to wealth (value-added by-products), operation & maintenance of sanitation facilities, as well as management of resource centres under the ambit of SBM-U.

This convergence guideline is meant for state governments and urban local bodies (ULBs) to adapt these models as per their local contexts. The next section details how the components of DAY-NULM i.e. Social Mobilization and Institutional Development (SMID), Employment through Skill Training & Placement (ESTP), and the Self Employment Program (SEP), can be dovetailed to upgrade and promote sanitation and waste management sector livelihoods.

The indicative financials for each of the convergence models are provided in Annexes. These models aim to increase income levels of SHG members and other marginalized groups and also lead to higher aspirations among those who are currently working in the sanitation and waste management sectors. The guideline booklet outlines how infrastructure and operational structures specific to each of the two missions may be utilized to achieve dual objectives.

Related Resource Document

For more information contact us at info@umcasia.org

Preparation of a Detailed Case Study, Training Material, and Teaching Notes on Government of Gujarat’s Initiative of Kaushalya Vardhan Kendra

Client: Government of Gujarat
Location: Gujarat
Duration: April 2014 – May 2014

The rapid growth of the population in India is coupled with a unique demographic transition. Because of declining birth rates and improved life expectancy, India will witness a continuous rise in the working-age population (in the 15–64 age bracket) over the next decade. Until 2020, the growth rate of the working-age population in India will exceed that of the total population.
“People in urban areas have a 93% higher chance at vocational training than those in rural areas. Furthermore, a person with a high school degree has a 300% higher chance at getting trained than an illiterate person. This unique 20 to 25 years’ window of opportunity termed as the ‘demographic dividend’ forms the basis of skill development policy in India. The 12th five-year plan of the Government of India emphasizes the importance of vocational training and skill development to reap the full potential of the demographic dividend and build a skilled workforce in the near future. The National Skill Development Policy (NSDP), 2009 envisions empowering all individuals through improved skills, knowledge, nationally and internationally recognized qualifications to gain access to decent employment and ensure India’s competitiveness in the global market. The Government of India has set a target to skill 500 million people by 2022, and to increase the percentage of the workforce with formal skills from 10% to 25% through providing vocational training and other short term skill development programs. Formal vocational training in India is primarily imparted through Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) under the aegis of the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Other ministries such as the Ministry of Human Resource Development, the Ministry of Rural Development and the Ministry of Urban Development & Poverty Alleviation also implement skill upgrading programs and self-employment schemes. Most of these skill programs and schemes however are concentrated in cities, towns, and urban agglomerations, and opportunities for vocational and skill training in rural areas are particularly scarce.
Learnings:

The key learnings from the KVK initiative which has pioneered a flexible approach to skill development making it more accessible for women and other disadvantaged groups in rural areas are presented below:

Adopting a cluster-based approach to providing skill training can improve access to vocational education in rural areas.
Making skill training programs more flexible by offering short term courses (average 2 months) and limiting the course timings to maximum 4 hours a day, has proved successful in increasing women enrollment.
Providing need-based, industry responsive courses enhance the opportunities for employment and self-employment.
A clear policy framework with roles and responsibilities of government and private stakeholders clearly delineated and mobilizing existing government machinery to make decision making prompt and responsive are key reasons for the successful implementation of the program.
Enrollment of women in the KVK program can be further increased by mandating participation of women in the Kaushalya Vardhan Samitis.
By fostering industry linkages and tie-ups with traders and marketers for home-based businesses, the KVK program can be made more attractive for prospective trainees.
Gender stereotyping in vocational courses is still evident. Skills such as tailoring are culturally associated with women while other skills such as plumbing, basic electrical are associated with men. The KVK program has been able to break some of these barriers by offering courses such as motor driving and basic computer education which are equally popular among men and women. The program has the potential to encourage the participation of women in non-traditional occupations.

Related Resource Document

For more information contact us at info@umcasia.org

Study on Women Hand-Lorry Transporters of Ahmedabad

Client: Oak foundation
Duration: May 2014 – April 2015
Location: Ahmedabad

UMC received a grant from the Oak Foundation for undertaking a survey-based research study on the women hand-lorry workers in Ahmedabad. This was jointly undertaken with the Initiative for Transportation and Development Programs (ITD).

According to estimates, there are close to 1000 women hand-lorry pullers in Ahmedabad, largely concentrated around the old city area. These hand-lorry workers play a significant role in the urban freight sector by providing the crucial last-mile connectivity between markets, godowns, and wholesale dealers. They transport heavy goods every day for short-to-medium distances on the head or in a bulky wooden and iron-framed vehicle, braving the harsh weather, negotiating traffic, and dealing with frequent abuses by cars and two-wheelers at the cost of their own health and safety. ITD had conducted a preliminary investigation about these women in 2012 which highlighted their socio-economic conditions and the challenges they face with respect to their health, safety, and social security.
This study examined the role of hand lorry transporters in the urban freight scenario and identified gaps, opportunities, and potential solutions towards improving their working, socio-economic and health conditions. The aim of this study is to lead to improved outreach of policies and programs, better coordination among various governments. departments, ensuring access to welfare schemes and strengthening community organizations and services.

Related Resource Document

For more information contact us at info@umcasia.org

Capacity Building Programmes under Rajiv Awas Yojana

Client: Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Govt. of India
Duration: February 2014
Location: Gujarat

UMC was empanelled as Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) Training providers. UMC carried out a training program for urban poor housing for target groups of State / NNRCs, Administrative, Planning, Finance, Housing, Municipal, Town Planning officers, Engineers, City Commissioners, Chief Officers etc.

UMC prepared training material that focused on :
Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY)
Evolution and Overview
RAY Implementation Strategy
Mandatory and optional Reforms
Process and Activities
Mukhyamantri Gruha Yojana
Status of RAY in Gujarat

Related Resource Document

For more information contact us at info@umcasia.org

Training for Urban Local Bodies Officials on Tenets Gujarat Affordable Housing Mission

Client: Affordable Housing Mission-Gujarat Urban Development Mission, Govt. of Gujarat
Duration: November 2013
Location: Gujarat

UMC was empanelled by the Gujarat Affordable Housing Mission to train ULBs across the state on the various tenets of the mission. Regional level trainings at Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Rajkot, and Surat were conducted for Chief Officers, Municipal staff, the staff of development authorities and housing boards, developers, contractors, NGOs working in the field of slum improvement and affordable housing. UMC prepared training material identified speakers and experts from the sector to deliver the series of training programs. Typically each of the training workshops included:

Urbanization and overview of housing in Gujarat
Approach towards slums and affordable housing
Overview of RAY and Mukhyamantri Gruha Yojana
Operationalizing slum improvement projects
Creating new affordable housing stock

Brief Outline:
Urbanization trends in India and Gujarat
Housing shortage in India and Gujarat
Slum population in Gujarat
Defining affordable housing

Related Resource Document

For more information contact us at info@umcasia.org

 

Manual on Training Needs Assessment for Urban Local Bodies

Client: National Institute for Urban Affairs
Duration: June 2010
Location: India

Executive Summary Rapid urbanization and economic growth have led to an increased demand for efficient city management and planning. As urban issues are getting complex, there is an increased pressure on the ULBs to meet the challenges of city management and overall service delivery. Though the ULB’s have gained the power to govern through the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, most of them lack the required skills and resources, training, and education for doing justice to their functional responsibilities. City managers need to constantly acquire the knowledge, skills, and expertise required to plan, manage and govern their cities. However, the present form of training in most ULBs is ad hoc. Most of the ULBs do not have a training plan or the resources to implement it. Also, there is little incentive for regular training and the follow-up activities.

This manual was formulated as a step towards systemizing and internalizing the training function within ULBs. It aims to enhance the capacity and skills of municipal staff through a systematic process of needs assessment at all levels- that is, the organization, department/ team, and the individual level. The recommendation included that needs assessment should form the first step of a performance improvement initiative followed by preparation of a training plan, implementation, monitoring and review of the program, feedback, and revision of the training plan. The important factor is to follow this cycle continuously. The ULBs can adopt the manual as a guidebook for conducting Training Needs Assessment within the organization and for developing a training plan.

The manual is organized into 3 sections:
Section A- Guidelines: It provides a brief overview of the Training Needs Assessment along with the purpose and scope of the manual. It highlights the objectives and the methodology of conducting training needs assessment in a ULB. The second part provides detailed guidelines on the process of conducting TNA and developing a training plan. The approach suggests a multilevel assessment that covers the Organizational level, Department/ team level, and individual level. The guidelines explain the six steps of conducting a TNA and plan preparation. These include -description of the profile of the ULB, organizational setup of the ULB, capacity building initiatives, institutional training assessment, individual training assessment, and finally development of a training plan. Each step has been detailed to include the intention of the chapter, key points, tools, outcomes, and detailed information required from the ULB. This section is cross-referenced with the templates provided in Section B.

Section B- Toolkit: Section B serves as the toolkit with ready to use templates for conducting the TNA. The templates can be replicated or customized as per the requirement of the ULB. The section has six chapters similar to the ones included in section A. The ULB or the agency conducting the TNA should fill in the templates using the guidelines and checklists provided in the corresponding chapter of section A. The six steps are similar to the ones described above.

Section C- Annexure: Section C forms the concluding part of the manual and includes formats for compiling information on various aspects of the needs assessment and the training plan. The formats included in the manual are questionnaires for the municipal staff and elected members, a suggested list of participants for the SWOT and individual questionnaire discussion, a list of the training institute to be developed by the ULB, the outline of training courses based on the standard modules, and the compiled code list of training areas. Various training courses that are part of the standard training modules relating to Awareness, Induction, Knowledge, and Skill-building, and Attitudinal changes have been detailed here.

This manual can be used by managers, senior officers, and trainers interested in designing, implementing, and monitoring Training Needs Assessment in the ULB. Ideally, TNA should be conducted in-house by a team that is familiar with the setup of the organization. It is a sensitive process and requires proper orientation and planning. The development of this manual is inspired from the TNA study undertaken for Surat Municipal Corporation in collaboration with NIUA.

For more information contact us at info@umcasia.org

Livelihood and Poverty Alleviation Projects

 

Technical Support to National Urban Livelihood Mission for Convergence with Swachh Bharat Mission

Preparation of a Detailed Case Study, Training Material, and Teaching Notes on Government of Gujarat’s Initiative of Kaushalya Vardhan Kendra

Study on Women Hand-Lorry Transporters of Ahmedabad

Capacity Building Programmes under Rajiv Awas Yojana

Training for Urban Local Bodies Officials on Tenets Gujarat Affordable Housing Mission

Manual on Training Needs Assessment for Urban Local Bodies